Skip to main content

Full text of "Iphigenia at Aulis"

See other formats












This edition of Lady Lumley's translation of the 
Iphigenia at Aulis of Euripides has been prepared by 
Harold H. Child and checked by the General Editor. 

Oct. 1909. W. W. Greg. 

THE play now for the first time printed is the earliest 
extant attempt to render into English a work of one of 
the Greek dramatists. The translator was Jane, daughter 
of Henry Fitzalan, twelfth Earl of Arundel, and wife of 
John, first Baron Lumley of the second creation. It 
is a pity that the natural companion of the present 
piece, Princess Elizabeth's translation, also of a tragedy 
of Euripides, is not forthcoming. 

The volume in which the play is preserved at the 
British Museum, MS. Reg. 15. A. ix, bears on the 
first leaf the inscription: 'The doinge of my Lady 
Lumley dowghter to my L. Therle of Arundell,' while 
below is the autograph signature of Lord Lumley. It 
is a quarto volume of 127 leaves, a good many of which 
are blank and not included in the numbering, which is 
modern. The contents, all in Lady Lumley's autograph 
except in the one instance noted, are as follow: 

Oratio prima Isocratis ad Demonicum f. 2 

Ends imperfectly on f. 2 b : 3 has headline only: there follow 

7 blank leaves unnumbered. 
Epistola f. 4 

A new-year letter to Lord Arundel, to accompany the following 

Oration, and ending: Filia tua tibi deditissima loanna Lumleya. 

Oratio Isocratis 2 a ad Nicoclem f. 5 

Nicocles, 3* Oratio Isocratis f. 12 

Epistola f. 23 

To Lord Arundel, to accompany the following Oration. 
Euagoras, Oratio quarta Isocratis ad Nicoclem f. 24 

There follows I blank leaf unnumbered : another has been cut out. 
Argumentu Orationis Isocratis quam in laudem pacis scripsit . . f. 40 
Oratio Isocratis in laudem pacis f. 41 

There follow 2 blank leaves unnumbered. 
TheTragedie of Euripides called Iphigeneia translated out of Greake 

into Englisshe 63 

There follow 13 blank leaves unnumbered. 


A note: acerba audire tolerabilius, qum videre f.98 b 

There follow 2 blank leaves unnumbered. 

Two pages of extracts (in a different hand) from charter rolls 
of Yorkshire and Northumberland (temp. Hen. Ill & 
Edw. I) f. 99 b 

An extract of two pages : Mattheus Siluaticus de lapide aquilae. 

cap, 395 f. ioi b 

A note: Nemo poluto queat animo mederi f. ioz b 

The whole of the contents are in Latin with the excep- 
tion of Iphigenia. The printed catalogue of the Royal 
MSS. erroneously states that this too is in Latin, and 
the statement has been repeated elsewhere. The arrange- 
ment of the entry in the catalogue, which separates the 
play from the orations, has also given rise to an un- 
founded belief that the former was at one time separate. 

The volume appears to have served as a common- 
place book or rough copy book. A fair copy of the 
Fourth Oration is found in another Royal MS., 15. A. ii, 
a small octavo volume, very carefully written, and uni- 
form with MS. Reg. 15. A. i, containing the 'Oratio 
Isocratis que Archidamus inscribatur.' This last is 
certainly a presentation copy to Lord Arundel, and 
bears on the first leaf an inscription similar to and in the 
same hand as that in the quarto volume. It also bears 
Lumley's signature, having passed into his possession 
with the rest of Arundel's library on the latter's death. 

The date of the translations is not known. They 
were, of course, produced after Lady Lumley's marriage, 
but were nevertheless in all probability still exercises of 
childhood. Unfortunately none of the relevant dates 
are known precisely. John Lumley was most likely 
born in 1534, Jane Fitzalan probably not later than 
1537. Their marriage took place soon after May 1549, 


the date of Lumley's matriculation at Cambridge. 
There is extant (MS. Reg. 17. A. xlix) a translation of 
'Erasmus his Institution of a Christian Prince/ bearing 
at the end the inscription : 'Your lordeshippes obedient 
sone I. Lumley. 1550.' Since Lumley's own father 
was executed in 1537, the person addressed can only 
have been Arundel. The volume, moreover, bears 
Arundel's name. It seems probable, therefore, that 
husband and wife pursued their classical studies con- 
currently, and that the present play was translated at 
no long period subsequent to their marriage. Lady 
Lumley was buried on 9 March 1576/7. 

The translation, which is by no means either literal 
or complete, appears from the spelling 'Iphigeneia' to 
have been made directly from the Greek, and this is 
indeed inherently probable ; but a Latin version of the 
play by Erasmus had been printed at Paris in 1506, 
while a complete rendering of the Euripidean tragedies 
in that language was also extant. 

The present edition follows the MS. line for line, 
and presents the text as finally corrected by the trans- 
lator. All alterations are, however, recorded in the 
following list. 



N.B. In this list deletions are indicated by being placed within brackets. 

Argumt. i. Tragadie. 

22. the [ehe] (or [che]) chefeste 

33. a nother 

48 c.w. fained (49. fainedlye) 

56. aske (interlined) 

59. as/thoughe (i.e. written as one 
word andmarked for division] 

69. cowcell (cowncell) 

84. be [b] let 

Text 19. abro-|de [,]? (query in- 
serted but comma left} 

21 c.w. wat (22. Watchemen) 

22. wal-|lles: 

36. take (ke written over erasure} 

44 c.w. some- (45. sometimes) 

90. whoOy(oowritten over erasure) 
115. choose 
127. Ephigeneya. 
149. Soo (second o altered from t) 
1 60 c.w. Sen (Sen.) 
165. a noth-| er 

183. hinder [this] the 

184. goo.(?) 

245. seruante ? (query altered from 

248. (no c.w.) 

254. crastye(?) 

270. (no c.w.) 

283. my | nowne 

292. an (interlined] 

308. honor, [withe] 

330. shippes (interlined) 

364. barbarians (the barbarians) 

409 c.w. Me. (410. Mene.) 

422. Ephigeneya, 

424. is (interlined) 

455 c.w. gran- 

(456. graunted,) 
475. to [t] be(?) 

of [the] 

494. that/thorowghe 
505. parte, (r interlined) 
508. knowe (n interlined) 
523. (no c.w.} 
558. complai- 1 nte. .(?) 
590. You [kn (?)] knowe 
592 c.w. Iphi- (593. Iphi.) 
607. mene (ne interlined) 
638. shulde [s] knowe 
648. Aga (Aga.) 


652. fiste (firste) 

654. asonder, (?) 

676. (no c.w.) 

696. it (interlined] 

709. Agamemnon[s], (comma 


726. your (ur altered from u ?) 
731. leda (Leda) 

and [, and] the 
740. (no c.w.} 
762 c.w. But (but) 
783. Agamnon (Agamemnon) 
784 c.w. de- (785. determined) 
796. he (interlined] 
804 c.w. Aga. 

(Sen. Agamemnon) 

853. noble/man. 

854. How [best] I praye 

(therfore interlined] 
859. flatterer (re interlined] 
874. [Iti] It is 
893. (no c.w.} 
900. shall [yj be yours/and 

(rs/ inserted?) 
934. owne [daughter], (childe 


984 c.w. ought (985. oughte) 
990. of (interlined] 
IOOO. [tl] trulye(?) 
1 02 1. cause [whiche] who 

1029. you [y] to 

1030. me (interlined] 
1052. sis-|ter [be] slayne, 
1064. [knowe] not 

1074. de- 1 liuer/you (r/ inserted ?) 
1 08 1. broughtup(P) 
1099. may [maye] hide 
1107, 1 1 12. your (r interlined, 

perhaps you r ) 

1113. n wes, (first stroke ofw origin- 
ally intendedfor i and dotted] 


1128. was [t] reported (?) 

1133. is (it) 

1141. harneste [?] men ? (r 

altered from s) 
1151. heade ? (a interlined and 

rather doubtful] 
1153. he (interlined] 

hathe [he] taken 
1157. he (interlined] 
1 164. your [daughter] husband, 
1 1 66. And/you (altered from for 


1171 c.w. ther- (1172. therfore) 
1 20 1. witstande (withstande) 
1208. barbarias (barbarians) 
1213. O (interlined] 
1215. one[,]: (e altered and 

I22O c.w. more (e altered 

from o) 

1227. desire (r interlined] 
1251. bothe [bot] be 
1255. saye [from] your (to 

1286. (no c.w.} 
1293. for- 1 sake [you] nowe. 

(me interlined} 
1332. speke (k altered and 

1348. wellthe(well written over 


1351. preuilie. (?) 
1354. [had] weare 

1361. iorney[:]. 

1362. the (interlined] 

1364. wher [s] he 

1365. there/chaunced (e/ in- 


1366. uoice (possibly noice for 

1368. meruelinge (r inserted] 


1382. lenger (first e altered 1396. that (interltnea) 

from o) 1408 c.w. Cho (Cho.) 

1392. taken [up] 1409. goddes [interlined] 

J393- C r ( ? )] U P 

A peculiarity of the hand is that *u* is used consistently in all 
positions for vowel and consonant alike. Long *s* is usually found 
initially and medially except before * t ' and in the second position when 
doubled. It has not been retained in the reprint. A minuscule *f 
repeatedly appears after a period. Ornamental flourishes complete the 
half-filled lines at the end of speeches and also frequently occur after 
catchwords. Many of the latter are followed by a stop which is not 
needed, but in these cases the stop has been treated as part of the 
flourish and omitted in the reprint. On folio 69* the running-title is 
miswritten * Iphigeneneya.' 

A list of characters is given on folio 65 b . The names 
are in order of entrance except that the Nuntius should 
appear after Menelaus. The exact points of entry and 
exit are unmarked and not always clear, but the follow- 
ing tentative list may be of use. The Chorus may be 
assumed to be present throughout, though this is not 

i. Enter Agamemnon, Senex. 
206. Enter Menelaus. 
250 or later. Exit Senex. 
421. Enter Nuntius. 
44.7. Exit Nuntius. 
560. Exit Menelaus. 
^72. Enter Clytemnestra and Iphi- 


657. Exit Iphigenia. 
705. Exit Clytemnestra. 

708. Exit Agamemnon. 

709. Enter Achilles. 
719. Enter Clytemnestra. 

768. Enter Senex. 

814 or later. Exit Senex. 

904. Exit Achilles. 

905. Enter Agamemnon. 
917. Enter Iphigenia. 

1075. Exit Agamemnon. 
1108. Enter Achilles. 
1236. Exit Achilles. 
1318. Exit Iphigenia. 
1331. Enter Nuntius. 
1390. Exit Nuntius. 
1400. Enter Agamemnon. 
1411. Exeunt omnes. 




~&* \ 

. . 

MS. REG, i . A. ix. FOLIO i RECTO 


- - 



The Tragedie of Euripides 
called Iphigeneia tran- 
slated out of Greake 
into Englisshe. 


\The Argument of the Tragadie. 

After that the captaines of the grecians withe 
the nauye and the other preparacions of battell, 
did come together unto the hauen of Aulida, 
that from thens they mighte saile towardes 
Troye: ther came sodenly suche a calme we- 
ther, that for wante of wynde they coulde haue 
no passage. Wherfore the riposte beinge gre- 
ued that they spent there their time idlelye, 

10 asked cowncell of the wisemen, to whom Cal- 
chas the propheciar awnswered, that if Iphi- 
geneia the daughter of Agamemnon weare 
sacraficed to the goddes Diana of Aulida, 
that then the grecians shulde haue a for- 
tunate passage to Troye. Wherfore the 
hooste beinge called together, Menelaus 
did perswade his brother Agamemnon to agree 
that his daughter might be sente for. And 
bicause that Clytemnestra her mother shul- 

20 de be the willinger to let hir goo, they fained 
that she shulde be maried to Achilles one of 
the chefeste noble men of grece. This ex- 
cuse none knewe but only Agamemnon, 
Menelaus, Calchas, and Vlysses. But Agame- 
non after that he had written unto his 


wife of this matter, repented greately that 
whiche he had done, lamentinge moche 
the deathe of his daughter. Wherfore in 
the nighte he wrote other letters preue- 
ly unto his wife, declaringe that she shulde3o 
not nede to sende the uirgine hir daughter unto 
Aulyda : for hir manage shulde be deferred unto 
a nother time. Thes letters he deliuered 
ajfore daye unto an olde man his seruante, 
that he mighte carye them into grece, decla- 
ringe unto him, what they conteined. But 
Menelaus waitinge afore daye for the comin- 
ge of the uirgine, take the olde man carien- 
ge the letter, and did reproue Agamemnon 
uerye uehementlye, for his unconstantesie. 40 
In the meane time one of Clitemnestras 
company tolde Agamemnon, Menelaus beinge 
ther present, that Iphigeneia withe her mo- 
ther Clitemnestra, and yonge Orestes hir 
brother was come unto Aulida, and that all 
the hooste knewe of their cominge. Menelaus 
then perceiuinge that Agamemnon colde 
not sende his daughter home againe, began 
[fol. 64] fained 

fainedlye to perswade him not to sley the uirgine 
50 for his sake. In the meane time whilste they 
are resoninge of this matter, Clitemnestra 
comethe in withe Iphigenia hir doughter, tho- 
rowe whos cominge Agamenon is wonderfully 
trobled, bycause he purposed to keape secrete 
the cownsell of his daughters deathe. Wherfore 
whilste he goethe about to aske counsell of Cal- 
chas, Achilles comethe in the meane time 
to chide withe him. Whom Clitemnestra 
hearinge, she dothe salute him as thoughe 
60 he sholde haue bene hir soneinlawe. Achilles 
beinge ignorante of this matter dothe won- 
der at it. Then Agamemnons seruante the 
olde man to whom the letters weare de- 
liuered, dothe bewray Agamenons counsell, 
and declarethe to them the hole matter. 
-Then Achilles beinge angrie that under the 
/ cooler of his name, they had determined 

.^ ' *"* 

the deathe of the uirgine, he dothe defen- 
de hir in the cowcell of the grecians, 
70 that she shulde not be slaine, but he is 
ouercomed withe the uoice of the comon 
people. Wherfore whan the matter was 
broughte to suche a troble, that the whole 


hooste required the uirgine, and Achilles 
onlye was redie to contende againste 
them all. Then Iphigenia her selfe chau- 
ged hir minde, and perswadethe hir mo- 
ther, that it is better for her to dye a glo- 
rious deathe, then that for the safegarde 
only of hir life, either so many nobleme 80 
shoulde fall out within them selues, or 
else suche a noble enterprise, beinge ta- 
ken in hande, shulde shamefullye agai- 
ne be let slippe. Wherfore she beinge 
brought to the aulter of the goddes, 
was taken up to the countrie of Tau- 
rus, and in hir place was sente a 
white harte. And whan the sacrafice 
was thus finisshed the grecians sai- 
led to Troye. 90 

The ende of the 

[fol. 65] 

The names of the spekers in 
this Tragedie. 

1. Agamemnon, the kinge. 

2. Senex, an olde man his seruante. 

3. Chorus, a companie of women. 

4. Menelaus, Agamenons brother. 

5. Clytemnestra, Agamenons wife. 

6. Iphigeneia, the daughter of Clitemnestra 

and Agamenon. 

7. Achylles, her fained husbande. 

8. Nuncius, the messenger. 

Here beginnethe the 

tragedie of Euripides 

called Iphigeneia. 

Aga. Come hether O thou olde man. 

Sen. I come, but what is the matter O kinge? 

Aga. Thou shake knowe anone. 

Sen. I make haste to come, for my oulde age 
is uerie quicke and redie, for bothe 
the strengthe of my limmes, and also 
the sighte of mine eyes dothe yet con- 

Aga. But what meanethe this, me thinkes 
I see a starre shoote? 10 

Sen. It maye be so in dede : for it is not yet 
midnighte, as it may be iudged by 
the course of the seuen starres. 

Aga. I thinke so too, for I heare no noise of 
birdes, neither of the seae, nor yet of 
the winde, all thinges nowe are quiete 
and at reste. 

Sen. What is the cause, O kinge, that at 
this time of nighte, thou comeste abro- 
de? for all they that be of this hauenio 
take their reste still: yea and the 
[fol. 66] wat 


Watchemen as yet are not come from the wal- 
lles: wherfore I thinke it mete to goo in. 

Aga. O thou oulde man thou semeste unto me to 
be uerye happie: for trulie I do thinke that 
mortall man to be uerye fortunate, whiche 
beinge witheout honor dothe leade his life 
quietlye: for I can not iudge their estate 
to be happie, whiche rule in honor. 

Sen. In thes thinges the glorie and renowne of 30 
mans life dothe chefelye consiste. 

Aga. But this renowne is uerye brickie, for to 
wisshe for dignitie, it semethe uerye plesant, 
but it uexethe them that obtain e it: for 
sometimes the goddes not trulye honored 
take uengance of mans life, and otherwhi- 
les againe mens mindes withe care and 
thoughte to bringe their matters to passe 
are wonderfully troubled. 

Sen. I do not praise this opinion in a noble 40 
man, for O Agamemnon, thou waste not 
borne to haue all thinges chaunce happely 
unto the: for seinge thou arte a mortall 
man, thou muste sometime reioyse, and 



sometimes againe be sorie; for whether 
you will or no, this muste nedes happen, 
bycause it is so appointed by the goddes. 
But me thinkes you are writinge a 
letter by candle lighte : what is this wri- 
tinge? that you haue in your hande?so 
whiche sometime you teare, and then 
write againe: otherwhiles you scale it, 
and anone unseale it againe, lametinge, 
and wepinge. For you seme to make 
suche sorowe, as thoughe you weare out 
of your witte: What is the matter, O 
kinge, what is the matter: If you will 
shewe it me, you shall tell it to a trus- 
tie man and a faithefull: for thou kno- 
weste me to be one that Tindarus thy 60 
wiues father sente withe hir, as parte 
of hir dowrie: bicause he thoughte me to 
be a messenger mete for suche a 

Aga. Thou knoweste that Leda Thyestes 
daughter, had thre daughters Phoebes 
and Clytemnestra, whom I maried: 
[fol. 67] and 


and Helena whom manye noble men desired 
to haue to their wiues: But hir father Tindar- 
us consideringe what greate destruction 7 
was thretened to them that obtained hir: 
doughted longe, whether he shulde giue 
hir in mariage to any of them, or noo. 
Wherfore bycause he desired to haue all thin- 
ges to happen prosperousely, he caused all 
the younge men that desired to marie his 
daughter, to come all together into the tem- 
ple, and ther to make a promise eche to 
other before the goddes, that yf any man 
either grecian or els barbarian woulde 80 
goo about to take Helena from him, who 
she choose to be hir husbande: that than 
they all wolde withe cruell battell take 
uengance of that man. And this beinge 
thus brought to passe, Tyndarus gaue 
her free libertie to chose amonge them all, 
whom she liked beste: and she choose 
Menelaus: but I wolde to god it had not 
happened: for withein a while after, Pa- 
ns, whoo, as the comon uoice saithego 



was iudge betwene the goddes of their 
bewtie, came to Lacedemon and he 
beinge a goodlie yonge man, and of 
noble parentage, began to fall in loue 
withe her and so takinge hir priuelye 
awaye, broughte hir to a litle milage, 
uppon the hill Ida. But as sone as 
thes nwes weare broughte to Menela- 
us, he beinge as one halfe out of his 
witte for anger, began to reherse the 100 
couenante, whiche he and diuers other 
noble men had made betwixte them 
at the desire of Tindarus: sainge that 
it was mete that they than shulde hel- 
pe him, seinge he was oppressed withe 
suche a manyfeste iniurye. And the 
grecians beinge wonderfully moued 
withe his petefull complainte decre- 
ed, that they all wolde withe battaile 
inuade the Troianes, whiche so wron-no 
gefully had taken awaye Hellen. 
Wherfore after that they had prepa- 
red weapons, horses, charettes, and 
[fol. 68] all 


all other thinges necessarie for the battell 
they choose me to be their captaine, bicause 
I was Menelaus brother. But I wolde that 
this honor had happened to some other 
in my place: for nowe we hauinge gathe- 
red together our hooste, and. prepared 
our selues ready to battell, are constray- 120 
ned to tary here idle at this hauen, bi- 
cause the windes beinge again ste us, 
we can saile no further. And Calchas 
the prophesier studienge longe what shu- 
Ide be the cause of it and occasion, at 
lengthe hathe answered that if my dau- 
ghter Ephigeneya be slaine and sacrafised 
to the goddes Dyana, that then the who- 
le hooste shall not onlye haue free passage 
to Troye, but also uictoriously conquer it: 130 
But witheout the dethe of my daughter, 
none of all thes thinges can be broughte 
to passe. As sone as I harde of this, I coman- 
ded that the hooste shulde be sente home 
agayne. For I answered that my daughter 
shulde neuer be slayne throughe my consent. 



But I usinge all maner of meanes to 
perswade my brother to the contrarie, yet 
notwithstanding I was so moued with 
his ernest desire, that at lengthe, 1 140 
agreinge to his cruell requeste, wrote 
a letter to my wife, that she shulde sen- 
de my daughter hether. And bicause she 
shulde be the better willinge to let hir goo, 
I fained that she shulde be maried to 
Achilles: bicause he was so desirous of 
her, that he denied to goo to battell, 
witheout he might haue hir to his wife; 
Soo that nowe I haue determined the 
deathe of my daughter, under the color 150 
of mariage, and none knoweth of this, 
saue only Menelaus, Calchas, and Vlis- 
ses. But nowe I repentinge me of the 
message whiche I wrote to my wife of, 
haue here in this letter denied all that 
I saied before. So that if you will carie 
this letter unto greace, I will declare 
unto you all that is conteined in it, 
bicause I knowe you to be a faithefull ser- 
uante, bothe to my wife and me. 160 

[fol. 69] Sen 


Sen. Shew me I praye you, what answere I shall 
make to your wife agreable to the letter? 

Aga. Tell hir that she shall not nede at this ti- 
me to sende my daughter hether : for her 
mariage shall be differred unto a noth- 
er time. 

Sen. Will not Achilles thinke you be ang- 
erie, for that under the color of him 
you haue determined the deathe of 
your doughter? 170 

Aga. Achilles bearethe the name onlye: 
but he is not partaker of the thin- 
ge. Neither knowethe he what crafte 
we goo aboute. 

Sen. Thou haste prepared greuouse thin- 
ges, O kinge, for thou haste determi- 
ned to sacrafice thy owne childe, 
under the colour of mariage. 

Aga. Alas, I was than wonderfully discerned, 

for the whiche I am no we meruelou- 180 
sely trobled. Wherfore I praie thee 
make haste, and let not thy oulde 
age hinder the in this iourney. 


Iphigeneya. / 

Sen. I make haste to goo, O kinge. 

Aga. Do not stale by the plesante springes, 
and tarie not under the shadoinge 
trees, neither let any slepe hinder the. 

Sen. Do not you thinke any suche slouthe- 
fulnes in me O kinge. 

Aga. I praie you marke well the waye, 190 
and loke aboute it diligentely, leste 
that my wife preuentinge you, happ- 
en to come hether withe my daughter 
in the meane time. 

Sen. It shalbe done euen so. 

Aga. Make haste I praie the, and if thou 
mete my wife, turne hir backe againe. 

Sen. But what shall I do that your wife 
and your daughter may beleue me? 

Aga. Deliuer them this token, whiche2oo 
is enclosed in this letter: go quicke- 
ly, for the daye beginnethe to apeare: 
I pray the helpe me nowe in this mat- 
ter: for ther is no man to whom all 
thinges haue chaunsed happelye. 
[fol. 70] Cho. 


Cho. What is this? me thinkes I see Menelaius 
striuinge withe Agamemnons seruante. 

Sen. Darest thou O Menelaus comitte so 
greuous an offence in takinge awaye 
thos letters, whiche is neither mete, 210 
neither lawfull that thou shuldest 

Mene. Goo thy waye thou arte to faithefull 
to thy master. 

Sen. Truly you haue obiected to me a good 

Mene. Thou haste deserued ponisshement. 

Sen. It is not mete that thou shuldeste 
open thos letters, whiche I carie. 

Mene. Neither oughtest thou to bringe 220 
suche a mischefe uppon all grece. 

Sene. Thou striueste in uaine, Menelaius, 
for I will not deliuer my letters to 

Mene. Thou shake not passe withe them. 

Senex. And I will not leue them behinde me. 


Me. If thou wilte not deliuer them to me I 

will breake thy hede withe my mace. 
Sen. I passe not for that: for I thinke it a 

good thinge to dye for my masters 230 


Men. O thou frowarde felowe deliuer me 
thi letters and make no more busy- 
nes heare. 

Sen. Helpe O Agamenon I suffer iniurie 
heare of Menelaus: for withe stron- 
ge hande, he hath taken awaie your 
letter and he passethe not of hones- 
tie nor yet of righte. 

Aga, Howe, what busines, and contention 240 
is ther amongste you? 

Sen. I oughte rather to tell the matter 
then you Menelaius. 

Aga. What haue you to do Menelayus 
withe my seruante? or what cause 
haue you to striue withe him, and 
to take awaie that whiche pertai- 
nethe to me? 
[foL 71] 


Mene. Turne towarde me I praye you that I 

maye tell you all the matter. 250 

Aga. Thinke you, that I the sone of Atreus am 
afraide to loke uppon the Menelaus? 

Mene. Seeste thou O Agamemnon thes thy 
letters whiche conteine thy craftye 
counsell ? 

Aga. I see them uery well, but thou shake 
not keape them longe. 

Mene. Suerlie I will not deliuer them to 
the before that I haue shewed them 
unto the whole hooste. 260 

Aga. Wilte thou desire to knowe that whi- 
che dothe not become the, and darest 
thou open the seales of my letters? 

Mene. As sone as I had opened thy letter I 
merueyled what mischefe had put 
thos thinges in thi mynde, whiche 
thou haste priuely declared in 
this letter. 

Aga. Wheare diddest thou get my 

letter? 270 


Mene. I toke them from your seruante, for I 
watchinge by the hooste to heare of 
your daughters cominge, bi chaunce 
met withe him. 

Aga. Do you thinke it mete, that you 
shulde knowe of my matters, I praye 
you, is not this a token of a naugh- 
tie and unshamefaste man? 

Me. It was my pleasure so to do : for I owe 

no dutie to the. 280 

Aga. Thinke you that I can suffer this so 
greuous a thinge, that I shulde ney- 
ther do my busines, nor yet rule my 
nowne house after my fansye? 

Mene. Suerlye you chaunge your minde 
oftentimes, for sometime you thinke 
one thinge, and by and by ageyne 
you are in a nother minde. 

Aga. In dede you file your wordes well: 

but a lerned tonge disposed to euell 290 
is a naughtie thinge. 

[fol. 72] Mene. 


Mene. Yea, and an unconstante, and a diuers 
minde is as euell. But nowe I will 
ouercome you withe your owne wor- 
des if you will not denie them for 
anger: for I will not speake them 
gretlye for your prayse. Do not you re- 
member that whan you desired to 
be made captaine ouer the grecians 
you semed to refuse it? althoughe in 300 
deade you wisshed for it: howe lowlie 
than did you shewe your selfe, takinge 
euerie man by the hande, and kepinge 
open householde, and salutinge euerie 
man after his degree, as thoughe you 
wolde haue bought your honor withe 
the good will of the people. But as sone 
as you had obtained this honor, 
you began to change your condicions: 
for you refused the frendshipe of them, 310 
whiche had shewed them selues frindly 
to you afore, and then you waxed pro- 
ude, kepinge your selfe secretly within 
your house. But it dothe not become a 
good man to chaunge his fassions after 
that he is in honor, for he oughte than 



to be more faithefull to his frindes, 
when that he is in place to do them 
pleasure. I haue obiected this reproche 
unto you, I my selfe haue had 320 
profe of it. After that you withe the 
whole hooste weare come to this haue, 
you weare careles: but whan you cou- 
Ide haue no passage ouer the see, and 
the grecians desired license to goo home, 
refusinge to spende their time idelly 
heare, Then you beinge wonderfully 
trobled, fearinge leaste an euell repor- 
te shulde rise of you, bicause you beinge 
captaine ouer a thousande shippes shulde not 330 
ouercome Troie, you asked counsell of 
me what you mighte do, that you mig- 
hte neither loose dignite, nor yet dishonor 
your name. Wherfore as sone as Calc- 
has the proficier had answered that 
the grecians shulde bothe passe the see 
quiately, and also conquer Troye, if your 
daughter weare sacrafised to the god- 
des Diana, then you weare uerye gladde, 
[fol. 73] and 


and promised of your owne accorde to giue 340 
your daughter to be sacrafised : and beinge 
not compelled by any power, you sente unto 
your wife for your daughter, faininge 
that she sholde be maried to Achilles. But 
nowe sodenly you haue chaunged your 
minde, and haue written other letters: 
saienge that you will not agree to the 
deathe of your owne childe: take hede 
that you do not denie this, for the hea- 
uen it selfe can beare witnes of your 350 
saienges. Truly this same dothe happen 
to diuers other men, whiche in the be- 
ginninge whan they take any weightie 
matter in hande, do labor uerie diligent- 
lie till they haue obteyned it, and then 
they leue it of shamefully e : whiche shame 
dothe chance sometimes throughe the 
fearfulnes of the subiectes, and someti- 
mes whan they do rule the comon welthe 
whiche are unmete for it. But nowe I do 360 
chefelye lamente the state of the unfor- 
tunate grecians, whiche whan they toke 
in hande a noble enterprise againste 



barbarians, are constrained throughe 
your occasion, and your daughters, 
withe grete dishonor to leaue the same. 
Wherfore truly I thinke that no captai- 
ne ought to be chosen for dignite, nor 
yet for fauor, but rather for witte: for 
he that shulde rule an hooste, oughte 370 
in wisedome to excell all other. 

Cho. Suerly it is a greuous thinge that 
one shulde fall out withe an other: 
but speciallie that any contention 
shulde be amonge brethren. 

Aga. Nowe I will tell you of your fautes, 
Menelaus, but in fewe wordes, leste 
I shulde seme to be unshamfaste. Wher- 
fore I will speake to you as it becu- 
methe one brother to an other. Tell 380 
me I praye you, why you do sighe so? 
who hathe done you any iniurye? Do 
you lament the takinge awaye of 
your wife? But we can not promise 
you to get hir againe for you. For 
you your selfe haue bene the occasion 
[fol. 74] of 


of your owne treble. Wherfore seinge I haue 
not offended you: ther is no cause that I 
shulde suffer ponisshement for that, whi- 
che I am not giltie of. Dothe my prefer- 390 
ment troble you? or els dothe the desier 
of your bewtifull wife uexe you? for 
euell men diuers times haue suche 
like desiers. And althoughe truly I am 
to blame, for that I haue not better de- 
termined my matters, yet I feare me 
leste you are moche more to be reprehe- 
ded, for that you beinge deliuered of 
an euell wife, can not be contented. 

Cho. Thes saienges truly do not agree withe 400 
that whiche was spoken before. Yet not- 
withestandinge they do teache us well, 
that we oughte not willingly to hurte 
our children. 

Aga. Alas I wretche haue neuer a frinde. 

Mene. Yes you haue diuers frindes, excepte 
you will neglecte them. 

Aga. But it dothe become frindes to lame- 
te one withe an other. 



Mene. If you wolde haue frindes, you weare 410 
beste to loue them, whom you desier 
to helper and not them whom you 
wolde hurte. 

Aga. Why, do you not thinke that grece 
nedethe helpe in this matter? 

Mene. Yes, but I thinke that bothe you, and 
grece also are bewitched of some god. 

Aga. Brother me thinkes you are to proude 
of honor: wherfore I muste seake some 
other waie, and get me other frindes. 420 

Nun. O Agamemnon, thou ualiant captaine, 
I haue broughte to the Ephigeneya, 
thy daughter, whom thou diddeste 
sende for: and withe hir is come Clite- 
nestra thy wife, and Orestes, that 
thou mightest be comforted withe 
the sighte of them. I haue made ha- 
ste to bringe you this nwes: bicause I 
see all the grecians waitinge for the 
cominge of your daughter as it 430 
weare for some strange thinge, 
[fol. 75] and 


and some of them saye, that you haue sente 
for hir by cause you are desirous to see her, 
other iudge that she shulde be maried, 
and some thinkethe that she shulde be 
sacraficed to the goddes Dyana. Tell 
me, O kinge, I praye the, to whom shall 
she be marled? But nowe let us leaue 
to speake of suche thinges, for it is 
nede and time to prepare that whi- 440 
che shalbe necessarie for the weddinge. 
Wherfore I praye you Menelaius, also 
be merie, for this day as I truste 
shall be uerie fortunate to Iphigeneya. 
Aga. Thou haste saied well, wherfore goo 
thou in, for all thinges will chance 
happely to the. But what shall I saye 
whiche am thus in treble, and yet 
may not be wail e my owne misery e. 
for this occasion they whiche are of 450 
meane estate seme unto me uerie 
happie. for they may complaine of 
their miserie, and bewaile withe 
teares the deathe of their children 
but to noble men no suche thinge is 



graunted, for I dare not lament my 
unfortunate chaunce, and yet it gre- 
uethe me that I may not shewe my mise- 
rie. Wherfore I knowe not what I shulde 
sale unto my wife, nor withe what face 460 
I shulde loke uppon her. Alas she hathe 
undone me bicause of her cominge, 
althoughe in dede she thinkethe she hath 
a good occasion, for she beleuethe that 
hir daughter shalbe maried, in whiche 
thinge she shall finde me a liar. Againe 
I haue pitie of the litell gerle, for I knowe 
she will speake thus unto me, O father 
will you kill me? if you forsake me, of 
whom shall I aske remedie, Alas what 470 
answer shall I make to this, suerly na- 
ture oughte to moue me to pitie, and 
if that wolde not, yet shame shulde let 
me. Alas, Alas: What a greate reproche 
is it, the father to be an occasion of 
his owne childes deathe. Howe therfore 
am I trobled? On this parte pitie and 
[fol. 76] shame 


shame,on the other side honor and glorie dothe 
moche moue me. 

Cho. We also lamente your chaunce, so moche as 480 
it becomethe women to lamente the 
miserie of princes. 

Me. I praye you brother let me see your hande. 

Aga. I giue you libertie: for I will put all the 
uictorie in your hande. 

Me. I will not flatter you brother, but I will 
she we you faithefully my opinion. Suer- 
ly when I sawe you in suche miserie I was 
moued withe brotherly pitie, and lame- 
nted moche your chaunce. Wherforeigo 
nowe I cownsell you, not to sleye your 
daughter, neyther to do your selfe 
any domage for my cause, for it is not 
mete, that thorowghe my occasion you 
shulde hinder either your selfe, or any 
of your children. For I waienge the 
matter, consider what a greuous 
thinge it is to kille your owne childe. 
And besides this I pitie moche hir, by- 
cause I do consider she is my kinswomasoo 
and ha the not deserued to dye for Helen's 



cause. Wherfore I will councell you not 
to sacrafice your daughter, but rather 
tosende home againe thewhoole hooste, 
And as for my parte, I will agre unto 
you. For I consideringe howe a father 
oughte to loue his childe, haue chaun- 
ged clene my opinion: for I knowe a 
good man ought to folowe that whiche 
is good. 510 

Cho. O Menelayus, you haue spoken lyke 
a noble man. 

Aga. I praise you Menelaus bicause you ha- 
ue chaunged your minde so gentlelye. 

Me. Suerlye ambition and desire of welthe 
hathe caused moche strife betwene 
bretherne, howbeit I do abhorre soche 
cruell brotherhoode. 

Aga. Althoughe you are agreed, yet I am 
compelled to slee my daughter. 5*0 

Me. Whie, no bodie will compell you. 

Aga. Yes trulye the whole hooste will re- 
quier hir of me. 
[fol. 77] 


Mene. If you will sende her home againe,you nea- 

de not deliuer her to the grecians. 
Aga. If I shulde deceiue them heare, then 

they wolde ponisshe me, whan I come 

Mene. You oughte not trulie to feare so mo- 

che the hooste: for they knowe not of 530 

this matter. 
Aga. But I doute leste Calchas shewe 

them of it. 
Mene. You may remedie that in ponisshinge 


Aga. Brother do you not feare Vlisses? 
Mene. Yes trulye, for it dothe lie in his pow- 
er to hurte either you or me. 
Aga. I doughte that for he studiethe uerye 

moche to get the good will and fauor 540 

of the people. 
Mene. He is desirouse in dede of ambition 

and honor. 
Aga. If he shulde gather the people together, 

and declare unto them what Calchas 

hathe saied of my daughter, suerlie 



he might quickelye perswade them to 
sleye you and me, that thay might get 
her the easelier. , But if it shulde chaun- 
ce that I shulde flie, then truly they 550 
wolde not onlie seke to destroie me, 
but also my children. Nowe therfore 
seinge that I am in soche treble that 
I knowe not what to do, I shall desier 
you, O Menelaius, not to shewe this nwes 
unto my wife, before that Iphigeneya 
be all redie sacrafised, that I may be 
lesse moued withe hir pitious complai- 
nte. And I praye you also, O ye women, 
not to open this matter. 560 

Cho. Truly we may see nowe, that they are 
mooste happie, whiche beinge neither 
in to hye estate, nor yet oppressed 
withe to moche pouertie, may quietly 
enioye the companie of their frindes. 
But beholde heare comethe Clytemne- 
stra the quene and Iphigeneya 
her daughter, beinge adorned withe 
all nobles, Let us therfore mete hir 
[fol. 78] withe 


withe moche mirthe, leste she shulde be abasshed 5?o 

at hir cominge into a strange countrye. 
Cly. This trulye is a token of good lucke that so 

manye noble women meate us. Let us 

therfore come downe from our charet, 

that they may bringe us to Agamemnons 

Iphi. I praye you mother be not offended withe 

me, thoughe I do embrace my father. 
Cly. O kinge Agamemnon I am come hether 

to fulfill your comaundement in that 580 

you sente for me. 
Iphi. And I also, O father, am come beinge not 

a litle ioyous that I maye see you. 
Aga. Neither am I sorie of your companye 

daughter, for of all my childre I loue you 

Iphi. What is the cause father, that you seame 

to be so sadde, seinge you saye, you are so 

ioyfull at our comminge. 
Aga. You knowe daughter, that he whiche 590 

rulethe an hooste shall haue diuers oc- 

cations to be trobled. 



Iphi. Althoughe in dede a captaine ouer an 
hooste shall be disquieted withe sondrie 
causes, yet I praye you set aside all soche 
trebles, and be merie withe us whiche 
are therfore come unto you. 

Aga. I will folowe your councell daughter, for 
I will reioyse as longe as I may haue 
your companie. 600 

Iphi. But what meanethe this father that 
you do lament so? 

Aga. I haue good cause to morne : for after 
this daye I shall not see you ageine 
of a greate while. 

Iphi. I do not understande, O father, what 
you mene by this. 

Aga. Trulye daughter the more wittely you 
speake, the more you treble me. 

Iphi. If it be so father, then will I studie 610 
to seme more folisshe that you may 
be delited. 

[fol. 79] Aga. 


Aga. Suerly I am constrained to praise gretlye your 
witte, for I do delite moche in it. 

Iphi. I praye you than father set awaye all other bu- 
sines, and tarie amongste us your children. 

Aga. Indede I am desirous so to do, althoughe I 
can not as yet haue libertie. 

Iphi. What is the matter father that you tarie 

heare so longe in this hauen. 620 

Aga. Trulye we are desirous to goo hens, but we 
can haue no passage. 

Iphi. Where I praye you dwell thos people 
whiche are called the troians? 

Aga. They are under the kyngdome of Priamus. 

Iphi. I wolde to god I might goo withe you into 
thos parties. 

Aga. I will graunte you your requeste daugh- 
ter, for I am determined to take you with 
me. 630 

Iphi. Shall I goo alone, or els with my mother? 

Aga. No trulie you shall neither haue the 
companie of me, nor yet of your mother. 



Iphi. Whie? will you set me in a strange 

Aga. Leaue to enquier of suche thinges, 
for it is not lawfull that women 
shulde knowe them. 

Iphi. Make haste O father to goo unto Troye, 

that you may come quickely ageine 640 
from thens. 

Aga. So I do daughter, but I muste sacrafice 

Iphi. Shall I be at the sacrafice father? 

Aga. Ye daughter, for you muste be one 
of the chefeste. 

Iphi. Why? shall I dawnce aboute it? 

Aga Truly I counte my selfe more happie 
bicause you do not understande me, 
goo your waye therfore and make you 650 
redie withe the other uirgins. But 
let me fiste take my leaue of you, for 
this daye shall seperate you and me 
[fol. 80] farre 


farre asonder; althoughe this your mariage 
shalbe uerie noble, yet truly it dothe greue 
me to bestowe you so farre of, whom withe 
suche care I haue brought up. 

Cli. Althoughe you are somewhat trobled yet I 
am not of so slender a wit, but that I can 
easely be perswaded, seinge that bothe the 660 
custome and also time dothe require, 
but tell me I praye you shall not Achilles 
be my daughters husband e? 

Aga. Yes trulie. 

Cli. He is a mete mariage in dede, but I am 
desirous to knowe wher he dwellethe. 

Aga. His dwellinge is aboute the flode Aphidna. 

Cli. Whan I praye you shall the weddinge be? 

Aga, Trulie uerie shortelie, for we make haste 
to goo hence. 670 

Cli. If it be so, then you haue nede to sacre- 
fice that whiche muste be done before 
the weddinge. 

Aga. I will goo about it therfore, that the ma- 
riage may be done the quickelier. 

Cli. Wher I pray you shall the feste be? 

Aga. Heare bicause of the hooste. 

Cli. Shewe me I praye you the place, that I 
may be partaker of it. 

Aga. I praye you wife obey me in this matter. 680 

Cli. What cause haue you, O kinge, to saie so, 
for whan did I euer disobey you? 

Aga. I am determined to marie my daughter 

Cli. Shall not I beinge hir mother be at the 

Aga. No trulie : for she shalbe maried among- 
ste the grecians. 

Cli. Wheare then shall I tarie? 

Aga. It is beste for you to goo againe to grece. 690 

Cli. If I leaue my daughter behinde me, 
who shall than be in my steade? 

Aga. Trulie I will do your office: for it doth 
not become you to be amongste 
suche a company e of men. 
[fol. 81] Cli. 


Cli. Althoughe that it be not mete in dede : yet 
the mother ought to be at the mariage 
of the daughter. 

Aga. But I thinke you haue more nede to be 

amongste your other daughters at grece: 700 
make you redie therfore to go home. 

Cli. I will not goo home yet, for you oughte to 
do sacrafice onlie: but I muste see all 
thinges made redie for the mariage. 

Aga. I haue labored in uayne: for althoughe 
I haue used deceite and crafte, yea unto 
my dearest frindes: yet I can not fulfill 
my purpose. 

Achyll. Wher is Agamemnon, the captaine of the 

grecians, or who of his seruantes will call 710 
him unto me. For I beinge moued withe 
the pitious complaintes of the people, 
am compelled to enquire of their capta- 
ines the cause, whi they beinge constray- 
ned to forsake bothe their wiues, their chil- 
dren, and also their countrie, nowe lie 
heare idlely without any ualiant dedes 
doinge ? 



Cly. As sone as I harde your uoice, O Achilles, 

I came out hastely to meate you. 720 

Achyll. What woman is this that semeth 
so bewtifull? 

Cly. I do not meruell thoughe you knowe 
not me, whom you neuer sawe: Yet 
neuertheles, I muste nedes praise 
your shamefastenes. 

Achill. Who are you I pray you, that you be- 
inge a woman dare come amongste 
suche a companie of men? 

Cly. My name is Clitemnestra, and I am 730 
the daughter of leda and the 
wife of Agamemnon. 

Achill. You haue declared uerie well in few 
wordes what you are, and althoughe 
you be a noble woman, yet is it not 
lawfull for me to tarie heare. 

Cli. Whether goo you I praye you let us 
shake handes to getter: for I truste 
this mariage shalbe uerie fortunate 
unto you. 74 

[fol. 82] 


Achil. It is not lawfull that I shulde be so familiar 

withe Agamemnons wife. 
Clit. Yes trulie you may well inoughe, seinge 

you shall marie my daughter. 
Achill. I do not knowe what mariage you meane, 

excepte you haue harde some nwes, whiche 

bicause you knowe to be untrue, you reporte 

as a false tale. 
Clit. I do not meruell, allthoughe you will not be 

acknowen of this mariage: for it is the fassion 750 

of all younge men to kepe it secrete for 

a time. 
Achil. No trulie I will not dissemble withe you 

for in dede I neuer desired the mariage 

of your daughter. 

Clit. Yf it be so in dede, then I maruell as 
moche of your saienges as you did of mine. 

Achill. Tell me I praye you wherfore you haue 
spoken thes thinges: for it may happen 
that bothe of us are deceiued. 760 

Clitt. Thinke you that it is not a grete shame 
unto me, that I haue tolde suche a lye, 



but I will nowe goo, and knowe the tru- 
th e of all this matter. 

Achill. Tell me I praie you, or you goo hence, 
wher your husbande is? for I am uerie 
desirous to speake withe him. 

Sen. Tarie I praie you, O Achilles, for I muste 
speake bothe withe you, and also withe 
Clitemnestra. 770 

Clit. Who dothe call me so hastelye? 
Sen. It is euen I the seruant of Agamenon. 

Clit. If you haue any thinge to saie to us 
come neare, and tell it quickelie 
witheout any circumstance, for you 
neade not to doughte us, for I knowe 
you haue euer serued diligentlye 
bothe me and also diuers of myne 

Sen. Bicause I haue bene euer faithefull 780 

unto you, therfore nowe I muste 

open unto you a uerye secrete 

thinge, trulie Agamnon hathe 

[fol. 83] de- 


determined to sleye Iphigeneya his daugh- 
ter in sacrafice. 

Clit. Suerlie I thinke either you be madde to 
tell suche an unlikelie tale, or els if it be 
so in dede, Agamemnon to be halfe out of 
his witte to agree to suche a cruell mur- 
ther. 790 

Sen. No trulie he is not madde thoughe in 
dede he hathe plaied the madde mans 

Clit. Wherfore I praye you hathe he preten- 
ded to do so cruell a dede. 

Sen. Trulye he is compelled to do so: forCalchas 
the propheciar hath answered that the 
grecians can not sayle to troie with- 
out the deathe of your daughter. 

Cli. If this be true, wherfore than did he 800 
faine, that she shulde be maried. 

Sen. That was bicause you shulde be the 
better willinge to let hir come. 

Cli. Howe I praye you, do you knowe this. 



Sen. Agamemnon him selfe shewed me of this 
thinge : for once he did repente him sel- 
fe so moche of the consen tinge to his da- 
ughters deathe, that he was determined 
to sende you a nother letter by me, whi- 
che was contrarie to the firste. 810 

Cli. Whie did you not deliuer them to me? 

Sen. As I was bringinge them, I happened 
to mete withe Menelaus, who withe 
uiolence toke them from me. 

Cly. Heare you this O Achilles? 

Achill. Yea truly I heare it well, and I pitie 
you moche: for I do euen abhorre this 
cruell dede of your husbande. 

Clit. Nowe therfore seinge this thinge is 

chaunsed so unfortunately unto me, 820 
I shall moste ernestelie desier you 
O Achilles, to helpe me nowe in this 
miserie: for .the reproche shalbe yours, 
seinge my daughter beinge sente for 
[fol. 84] under 


under the color of your name, shall nowe be 
slaine. Besides this yf you do not helpe us, we 
can bi no meanes auoide this mischefe: for 
I alone beinge a woman can not perswade 
Agamemnon: And if you forsake us, none 
shall dare to take our parte. 830 

Cho. Truly it is a uerie troblesome thinge to haue 
childre: for we are euen by nature compelled 
to be sorie for their mishappes. 

Achill. My minde is trobled more and more, for I 
am wonderfullie moued withe your piti- 
ous complainte: Wherfore seinge you haue 
required helpe at my hande I will promi- 
se you to deliuer bothe you, and your da- 
ughter from this miserie, if by any meanes 
I maye withestande the cruell pretence 840 
of Agamemnon and his brother, for this 
matter pertainethe unto me also, bicau- 
se that if she beinge sent for in my name 
shulde be slaine, then truly it wolde turne 
to no small dishonor to me. Wherfore I am 
compelled to helpe your daughter so mo- 
che as shall lie in my power: not onlye 
for that I am moued withe pitie, but 



also bicause it shoulde sotmde to no litell 
reproche to me, if that throughe my occa- 850 
tion your daughter shulde be slaine. 

Cli. Suerlie you haue spoken uerie well and 
like a noble man. 

How therfore I praye you shall I giue you 
thankes worthie your desertes : for if 
I shulde prayse you to moche, I feare 
leste I shulde moue you to hatred, ra- 
ther then to pitie, for then you wolde 
iudge me to be a flatterer, whiche of all 
noble men is to be abhorred, Againe 860 
if I shulde giue you fewer thankes, tha 
you deserue, then I may well be counted 
unthankefull: so that now I doughte 
what to do: but seinge you so gentlely 
haue promised me your helpe, I will 
submit bothe me, and my daughter 
under your rule: Wherfore if it please 
you I will sende for her hether, that 
she hir selfe may require helpe at 
your hande. 870 

[fol. 85] Achill. 


Achill. No trulie I thinke it not mete, that she shulde 
come abrode,for suerly men wolde iudge euell 
of hir, if she shulde come moche amongste com- 
panie. It is beste therfore that you kepe 
hir at home, and as for my parte trulie 
I will do as moche for hir as shall lie in my 
power. But I thinke it beste, that you 
shulde proue firste if you can perswade 
her father not to deliuer her. 

Clit. Suerlye I shall not preuaile withe him: for 880 
he is so fearfull, that he dareth do nothinge 
witheout the consent of the whoole hooste. 

Achil. Althoughe you thinke you shall not perswa- 
de him, yet it is mete that firste you shou- 
Ide shewe him, what a greuous thinge it 
is to be called a destroyar of his owne 
children, and if he be nothinge moued 
withe that, then you may lawfully seke 
helpe at other folkes handes. 

Clit. You haue spoken uerie well. Wherfore 1 890 
will folowe your counsell. but tell me I 
praye you wher shall I finde you, that 
I may shew you what answer he dothe 
make me ? 


Achil. I will tarie heare till you come againe, for 
suerlyif I shulde goo with you, you shoulde 
be sclandered by me. 

Clit. In all this matter I will be ruled by you, 
wherfore if I obtaine my swte the than- 
kes shall be yours and not mine. But 900 
nowe heare cometh Agamemnon, shew 
me I praye you therfore what I shulde 
answer him if he aske for my daughter, 
seinge that she maketh soche mone. 

Aga. I am gladde that I haue met withe you 
O Clitemnestra : for I haue diuers 
thinges to talke withe you of. 

Clit. If you haue any thinge to saie to me, 
tell me I pray you, for I am redie 
to heare. 9 10 

Aga. Firste call out my daughter that she 
maye goo withe me to the temple of 
the goddes Diana, for I haue prepa- 
red all thinge redie for the sacrafice. 

Clit. You haue spoken well, thoughe in dede 
your doinges do not agre withe your 
[fol. 86] wordes 


wordes, but goo your waies daughter 

withe your father, and take withe you 

your brother Orestes. 

Aga. Why do you wepe and lament so daughter? 920 
Iphi. Alas? how shoulde I suffer this troble, seinge 

that all mortall men ar uexed bothe in 

the beginninge, the middeste, and the 

endinge of their miserie. 
Aga. What is the cause, that all you are so 

Clit. I will shewe you, if you will promise 

me to tell me one thinge, whiche I 

will require. 
Aga. Yes trulie I will graunte you your re- 930 

queste, for I did thinke to haue asked 

it of you. 
Clit. I heare saie that you goo aboute to sleye 

your owne childe. 
Aga. What, you haue spoken thos thinges, 

whiche you oughte neither to saye, nor 

yet to thinke. 

Clit. Answer me I praye you to this questi- 
on, as you promised. 



Aga. It is not lawfull for me to answer you 940 
to thos thinges, whiche you ought not 
to knowe. 

Clit. I haue not enquired of any thinge that 
dothe not become me : but take you hede 
rather, leste you make suche an answer 
as you ought not. 

Aga. Who hathe done you any iniurye,orwho 
hathe giuen you cause to saie so? 

Clit. Aske you this question of me? asthoughe 
your crafte coulde not be perceiued. 950 

Aga. Alas, I am trobled more and more, for all 
my secrete councellisnoweopenlie decla- 

Clit. In dede I haue harde of all that, whiche 
you haue prepared for your daughter: 
yea and you your selfe haue partelie 
confessed it in holdinge your peace. 

Aga. I am constrained to holde my peace, 
bicause I haue tolde you so manifest 
a lye that I can not denie it. 9 6 

[fol. 87] Clit. 


Clit. Herken nowe I praye you therfore: for 1 
muste nedes tell you of your faute. Do you 
not remember, that you marled me withe 
out the good will of all my frindes, takinge 
me awaye withe stronge hande, after 
that you had slaine my other husbande 
Tantalus, whiche cruell dedes my brother 
Castor and Pollux wolde haue reuenged, 
excepte Tindarus my father had deli- 
uered you out of that parell: so that by 97 
his meanes, you did obtaine me to be your 
wife, who after I was maried neuer 
shewed my selfe disobedient unto you in 
any thinge. And then I happened to 
haue thre sones at one birthe, and after- 
warde one daughter, and will you nowe 
sleye hir, knowinge no iuste cause whie? 
For if any man shoulde aske of you the 
cause of the deathe of your daughter, 
you wolde answer for Helens sake, whiche 9 8 
can be no lawfull cause, for it is not 
mete, that we sholde sleye our owne chil- 
de for a naughtie womans sake: nei- 
ther destroie thos that by nature we 



oughte to lone, for their cause only 
whiche are hated of all men. Besides 
this, if you kille my daughter, what 
lamentacion muste I nedes make, 
Whan I shall goo home, and wante 
the companie of her? consideringe that 990 
she was slaine bi the handes of her owne 
father : Wherfore if you will not be mo- 
ued withe pitie, take hede leste you 
compelle me to speke thos thinges, that 
do not become a good wife: yea and you 
your selfe do thos thinges that a good 
man ought not. But tell me nowe I 
praie you, what good do you obtaine by 
the deathe of your daughter? do you 
loke for a fortunate returne? trulye 1000 
you can not by this meanes get that, 
for that iournye can not ende happely 
whiche is begone withe mischefe. Besides 
this suerlie you shall stirre up the goddes 
to anger againste you. for they do euen 
hate them, that are manquellers. Agay- 
ne you can not enioye the companie of 
your other children whan you come home, 
[fol. 88] for 


for they will euen feare and abhorre you, se- 
inge that willinglie you do destroie your 1010 
daughter, and you shall not only fall into 
this mischefe, but also you shall purchase 
your selfe the name of a cruell tyrante. 
For you weare chosen the captaine ouer 
the grecians to execute iustice to all 
men, and not to do bothe me and also your 
children suche an iniurie: For it is not 
mete that your children shuld be ponisshed 
for that whiche pertaineth not to you, ney- 
ther ought I to loose my daughter for He- 1020 
lenas cause who hathe neuer shew- 
ed her selfe faithefull to hir husbande. 

Cho. It is mete, O Agamemnon, that you shul- 
de folowe your wiues councell. for it is 
not lawfull that a father shulde destroy 
his childe. 

Iphi. Nowe O father I knelinge uppon my kne- 
es and makinge moste humble sute, do 
mooste ernestely desier you to haue 
pitie uppon me your daughter, and not to 1030 
sleye me so cruelly, for you knowe it is 
geuen to all mortall men to be desi- 
rous of life. Ageine remember that I am 



your daughter, and howe you semed euer 
to loue me beste of all your children, in 
so moche that you weare wonte euer to 
desier, that you might see me maried to 
one worthie of my degree, and I did 
euer wisshe agayne, that I might Hue 
to see you an olde man, that you mi- 1040 
ght haue moche ioye bothe of me, and 
also of your other children. And will 
you nowe consent to my dethe? forget- 
tinge bothe that whiche you weare won- 
te to saye, and also what paine you and 
my mother toke in bringinge me up, 
knowing no cause in me worthie of 
deathe? for what haue I to do withe He- 
lena. But nowe father seinge you are 
nothinge moued withe my lamentation, 1050 
I will call hether my yonge brother Orestes, 
for I knowe he will be sorye to see his sis- 
ter slayne, and againe you can not 
choose, but you muste nedes haue pitie 
either of him, or els of me, consideringe 
what a lawfull requeste we do desier, 
for you knowe that all men are desi- 
[fol. 89] rous 


rous of lyfe, and ther is no wise man, but he 
will choose rather to Hue in miserie than 
to die. 1060 

Aga. I knowe in what thinges I ought to shewe 
pitie, and wherin I ought not, and I loue my 
children as it becomethe a father, for I do 
not this of my selfe, nor yet for my 
brothers sake, but rather by compulsion of 
the hooste: for the goddes haue answered 
that they can not passe the see without 
your dethe, and they are so desirous to 
go thither, that they care not what troble 
and miserie they suffer: so that they may 1070 
see it. Wherfore it lieth not in my power 
to withstande them: for I am not able 
to make any resistance againste them. 
I am therfore compelled daughter to de- 
liuer you to them. 

Cli. Alas, daughter into what miserie are bothe 
you and I driuen, seinge that your owne 
father will concente to your deathe. 

Iphi. Alas mother this is the laste daie, that 

euer I shall see you. O Vnhappi Troye 1080 
whiche haste norisshed and brought up 
that wicked man Paris: O Vnfortunate 



Venus whiche diddest promise to giue 
Hellena to him, for you haue bene the 
cause of my destruction, thoughe in 
dede I throughe my deathe shall purcha- 
se the grecians a glorious uictorie. Alas 
mother in what an unluckye time 
was I borne, that myne owne father 
whiche hathe concented unto my deathe, 1090 
dothe nowe forsake me in this miserie. 
I wolde to god that the grecians had 
neuer taken in hande this iornie. 
But me thinkes mother, I see a 
grete companie of men cominge hether, 
what are they I praye you? 

Clit. Trulye yonder is Achilles. 

Iphi. Let me then I praie you go hens 
that I may hide my face: for 
I am ashamed. 

Clit. What cause haue you so to do? 

Iphi. Trulie bicause it was saied that I shul- 
de haue bene his wife. 

[fol. 90] Clit. 


Clit. Daughter, you muste laie awaie all shame- 
fastenes nowe, for you may use no nicenes: 
but rather proue by what meanes you maye 
beste saue your life. 

Cho. Alas Clitemnestra ho we unhappi arte thou 
for truly ther is grete talkinge of the in 
the whoole citie. mo 

Clit. Wherof I pray you? 

Cho. Of your daughter how she shalbe slaine. 

Clit. You haue brought me uerie euell nwes, 
but tell me I praye you doth no bodie 
speake againste it? 

Achil. Yes I my selfe haue bene in dawnger of my 
life, bicause I toke your daughters parte. 

Clit. Who I pray you dare hurte you? 

Achil. Truly the whoole hooste. 

Clit. Do not your owne contrie men of 1120 
Mirmido helpe you? 

Achil. No truly, for euen they also did speke againste 
me saienge, that I was in loue withe her, 
and therfore I did preferre myne owne ple- 
asure, aboue the comodite of my countrie. 



Clit. What answer then made you unto them? 
Achil. I saied that I ought not to suffer her to 

be slaine whiche was reported by hir 

owne father that she shoulde haue bene 

my wife. 1130 

Clit. You saied well in dede : for Agamemnon 

sente for her from grece, faininge that 

is was for that purpose. 
Achil. But thoughe I coulde not preuaile againste 

suche a multitude of people, yet I will do 

as moche as shall lie in my power for 

Clit. Alas then you alone shalbe compelled to 

striue againste many. 
Achil. Do you not see a greate companye of 1140 

harneste men? 

Clit. I praye god they be your frindes. 
Achil. Yes trulye that they be. 
Clit. Than I hope my daughter shall not die. 
Achil. No that she shall not, if I can helpe hir. 
Clit. But will ther come any bodie hether 

to sleye hir? 

[fol. 91] Achil. 


Achil. Yea truly Vlisses will be heare anone withe a 
greate companie of men to take her awaie. 

Clit. Is he comanded to do so, or dothe he it but of 1150 
his owne heade? 

Achil. No truly he is not comanded. 

Cli. Alas then he hathe taken uppon him a wicked 
dede, seinge he will defile him selfe withe 
the daunger and deathe of my daughter. 

Achil. Truly but I will not suffer him. 

Clit. But if he goo aboute to take my daughter 
awaye withe stronge power what shall I 
do then? 

Achil. You ware beste to kepe her by you, for n6o 
the matter shalbe driuen to that pointe. 

Iphi. Herken O mother I praye you unto my 
wordes. for I perceiue you are angrie 
withe your husband, whiche 

you may not do. for you can not obtaine 
your purpose by that meanes: And you ought 
rather to haue thanked Achilles, bicause 
he so gentelly hathe promised you his helpe, 
whiche maye happen to bringe him into 
a greate mischefe. I wolde counsell you 1170 



therfore to suffer this treble paciently, for 
I muste nedes die, and will suffer it wil- 
lingelye. Consider I praie you mother, 
for what a lawfull cause I shalbe slaine. 
Dothe not bothe the destruction of Troie, 
and also the welthe of grece, whiche is the 
mooste frutefull countrie of the worlde 
hange upon my deathe? And if this wicked 
enterprise of the Troians be not reuenged, 
than truly the grecians shall not kepenSo 
neither their children, nor yet their wiues 
in peace: And I shall not onlie remedie 
all thes thinges withe my deathe: but 
also get a glorious renowne to the gre- 
cians for euer. Againe remember how 
I was not borne for your sake onlie, but 
rather for the comodite of my countrie, 
thinke you therfore that it is mete, that 
sue he a companie of men beinge gathe- 
red together to reuenge the greate in- 1190 
iurie, whiche all grece hathe suffered 
shoulde be let of their iournye for my 
cause. Suerlie mother we can not spe- 
ke againste this, for do you not thinke 
[fol. 92] it 


it to be better that I shulde die, then so many- 
noble men to be let of their iournye for one 
womans sake? for one noble man is better 
than a thousande women. Besides this se- 

3^''' . _ . .. 

inge my deathe is determined amongste 
the goddes, trulie no mortall man oughte 1200 
to witstande it. Wherfore I will offer my 
selfe willingly to deathe, for my countrie: for 
by this meanes I shall not only leaue a perpe- 
tuall memorie of my deathe, but I shall cause 
also the grecians to rule ouer the barbarians, 
j whiche dothe as it weare properly belonge 
to them, for the grecians bi nature are 
free, like as the barbarias are borne to bon- 

Cho. Suerlie you are happie O Iphigeneya, that 1210 
you can suffer so pacientlye all this treble. 

Achil. Trulie I wolde counte my selfe happi if I mi- 
ghte obteine the O Iphigeneya to be my wife, 
and I thinke the O grece to be uerie fortunate 
bicause thou haste norisshed soche a one: for 
you haue spoken uerie well, in that you 
will not striue againste jhe determinacion 
of the goddes. Wherfore I beinge not onlie 
moued withe pitie, for that I see you brought 
into suche a necessite, but also stirred up 1220 



more withe loue towardes you, desiringe 
to haue you to my wife, will promise you 
faithefullye to withstande the grecians, 
as moche as shall lye in my power, that 
they shall not sleye you. 

Iphi. Suerlie I haue spoken euen as I thoughte 
in dede: Wherfore I shall desire you O Achil- 
les, not to put your selfe in daunger for 
my cause: but suffer me rather to saue 
all grece withe my deathe. 1230 

Achil. Trulie I wonder gretelie at the bouldenes 
of your minde. And bicause you seme 
to be so willinge to die, I can not speake 
agairiste you: yet neuertheles I will pro- 
mise to helpe you still, leste you shulde 
happen to chaunge your minde. 

Iphi. Wherfore mother, do you holde your peace 
lamentinge so withe in your selfe. 

Clit. Alas, I wretched creature haue greate 

cause to mourne. 1240 

Iphi. Be of good comforte mother I praie you, 
and folowe my councell, and do not 
teare your clothes so. 

[fol. 93] Cli - 


Cli. Howe can I do otherwise, seinge I shall 
loose you. 

Iphi. I praie you mother, studie not to saue 
my life, for I shall get you moche honor 
by my deathe. 

Clyt.jWhat shall not I lament your deathe? 

Iphi. I No truly you oughte not, seinge that 11250 
('shall bothe be sacraficed to the goddes 
* Dyana and also saue grece. 

Cly. Well I will folowe your cownsell daughter, 
seinge you haue spoken so well: but tell me, 
what shall I save to your sisters from you? 

v^_ _^.- J - -" ~- -r ~ " "it" ~~ 1 

Iphi. Desier them I praie you, not to mourne 
for my deathe. 

Clit. And what shall I saye unto the other uir- 
gins from you. 

Iphi. Bid them all farewell in my name, and 1 1260 
praye you for my sake bringe up my litell 
brother Orestes, till he come to mans age. 

Clit. Take your leaue of him, for this is the 
laste daie, that euer you shall see him. 



Iphi. Farewell my welbeloued brother, for I am 
euen as it weare compelled to loue you, 
bicause you ware so glad to helpe me. 

Clit. Is ther any other thinge, that I may 
do for you at grece? 

Iphi. No truly^ but I prajg _you not to hate 1270 
myj^therfor this dedej for he is com- 
pelled to^ do it For the welthe ancT honor 
of grece. 

Clit. If he hath done this willinglye then 
trulye he hathe comitted a dede 
farre unworthie of suche a noble man 
as he is. 

Iphi. Who is this, that will carie me hence 
so sone? 

Clit. I will goo withe you O daughter. 1280 

Iphi. Take hede I praye you leste you happen 
to do that whiche shall not become you: 
Wherfore O Mother I praye you folowe 
my councell and tarie heare still, 
for I muste nedes goo to be sacrafised 
unto the goddes Diana, 
[fol. 94] 


Clit. And will you go awaye, O daughter, leuinge 
me your mother heare? 

Iphi. Yeae suerlye mother, I muste goo from you 

unto suche a place, from whence I shall neuer 1290 
come ageine, althoughe I haue not deserued 

Clit. I pray you daughter tarie, and do not for- 
sake me nowe. 

Iphi. Suerlye I will goo hence Mother, for if I 
did tarie, I shulde moue you to more lamen- 
tation. Wherfore I shall desier all you women 
to singe some songe of my deathe, and to 
prophecie good lucke unto the grecians: for 
withe my deathe I shall purchase unto 1300 
them a glorious uictorie; bringe me 
therfore unto the aultor of the temple 
of the goddes Diana, that withe my 
blode I maye pacific the wrathe of the 
goddes againste you. 

Cho. O Quene Clitemnestra of moste honor, 
after what fassion shall we lament, seinge 
we may not shewe any token of sadnes 
at the sacrafice. 

Iphi. I wolde not haue you to mourne for my 1310 
cause, for I will not refuse to die. 



Cho. In dede by this meanes you shall get your 
selfe a perpetuall renowne for euer. 

Iphi. Alas thou sone^whiche arte comforte to 
mans life, O thou light whiche doeste 
make ioyfull all creatures, I shalbe 
compelled by and by to forsake you all 
and to chaunge my life. 

Cho. Beholde yonder goethe the uirgine to be 

sacraficed withe a grete companye of 1320 
souldiers after hir, whos bewtifull face 
and faire bodi anone shalbe defiled 
withe hir owne blode. Yet happie arte 
thou, O Iphigeneya, that withe thy dea- 
the, thou shake jD^dtas^jimto the greci- 
ans a quiet passage, whiche T pray god 
may^nof only happen fortunatelie unto 
them, but also that they may returne 
againe prosperousely withe a glorious 
uictorie. 133 

Nun7 Come hether, O Clitemnestra for I 
muste speke withe you. 

Clit. Tell me I praie you what woulde you 
withe me, that you call so hastely, is ther 
any more mischefe in hande that I 
muste heare of? 

[fol. 95] Nun. 


Nun. I muste tell you of a wonder, whiche hathe 
happened at the sacrafisinge of your daughter. 

Clit. Shew me I pray you quickely what it is? 

Nun. As we wente unto the place wher the sacra- 1340 
fice shulde be, and passed thorowe the plesant 
fildes, wher the whole hooste waited for your 
daughter: Agamemnon seinge hir brought unto 
her deathe, began to lament and wepe. But 
she perceyuinge what mone hir father made 
saied unto him thes wordes, O father, I am 
come hether to offer my bodie willinglie for 
the wellthe of my countrie: Wherfore seinge 
that I shall be sacraficed for the comodite of 
all grece, I do desier you, that none of the 1350 
grecians may slaie me preuilie: for I will 
make no resistance ageinste you. And whan 
she had spoken thes wordes, all they whiche 
weare present, weare wonderful lye 
astonied at the stoutenes of her minde: So 
after this, Ach illes withe th e reste pjTThe 
whole hooste began to desier the goddes 
Diana, that she wolde accepte _the sacrafice 
of the uirgins blode, and that she wolde 
graunte them a prosperous succes of their 1360 
iorney. And whan they had made an 



ende: thepreste takinge the s worde in his han- 
de, began to loke for a place conuenient, 
wher he might sle your daughter; sodenly 
there chaunced a grete wonder, for althou^ 
ghe all the people harde the--uoke of the 
stroke, jret she uanisshed sodenlye awaye, 
And whan all 3iey~~rneFueImge" "at it, 
began to giue a greate skritche, then ther 
appeared unto them a white SJiarte , lienge 1370 
before the auTtor, strudgelinge^mn life.. 
And Calchas beinge then present, and 
seinge what had happened, did wonder- 
fully reioyse, and tolde the capitaines, 
that this harte was sente of the goddes, 

v^ ^ _____ t O 

bicause sheT wolde noT^lmire:" fair "aiitter 
defile3^vvithe jhe "blofleTof yourTaughter. 
Moreouer he saied that^ this was a token 
of good lucke, and that their iournie shou- 
Ide ^cHaunce prosperously unto them. 1380 
Wherfore he willed that they shulde 
tarye no lenger here. And whan this 
was so finisshed, Agamemnon willed me 
to shewe all thes thinges unto you, bi- 
[fol. 96] cause 


cause that I my selfe was present then Wher- 
fore I shall desier you, to thinke no unkindnes 
in the kinge your husbande: for suerlie the se- 
crete power of the goddes will saue them 
whom they loue: for this daie your daughter 
hathe bene bothe afiue^ and. deade. 1390 

Cho. Suerly O Clitemnestra you oughte to reioise 
of this nwes, that your daughter is taken 
x up into heauen. 

Clit. But I am in doughte whether I shulde 
beleue that thou, O daughter, arte amongste 
the goddes, or els, that they haue fained it to 
comforte me. 

Cho. Beholde yonder cometh Agamemnon, who 
can tell the truthe of all this matter. 

Aga. Trulye wife, we are happie for our daughters 1400 
sake, for suerlie she is placed in heuen : But 
nowe I thinke it beste that you goo home, 
seinge that we shall take our iournye so shortely 
unto Troy: Wherfore nowe fare you well. 
And of this matter I will comune more at 
my returne, and in the meane season I 
praie god sende you well to do, and your 
hartes desier. 



Cho. O happie Agamemnon, the goddes graunte the a 
fortunate iournie unto Troye, and a 
mooste prosperous returne againe. 


[fol. 97] 






Iphigenia at Aulis